“rTMS treatment outcome is quadratically related to the individual alpha peak frequency (IAF) in depression. Absolute distance of IAF to 10 Hz is linearly related to clinical outcome.”

Roelofs, C. et al. (2021) Individual alpha frequency proximity associated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation outcome: An independent replication study from the ICON-DB consortium, Clinical Neurophysiology, 132 (2), 643-649.

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“This suggests that interactions between endogenous frequencies and treatment outcome may be related to the selected stimulation parameters.”

Corlier, J. et al. (2019) The relationship between individual alpha peak frequency and clinical outcome with repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Brain Stimulation, 12 (6), 1572-1578.

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“Only coherently oscillating neuronal groups can interact effectively, because their communication windows for input and for output are open at the same times.”

Fries, P. (2005) A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (10), 474-480. 

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“The results indicate that rTMS at IAF (Individual Alpha Frequency) +1 Hz can enhance task performance…”

Klimesch, W. et al. (2003) Enhancing cognitive performance with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at human individual alpha frequency, European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1129-1133.

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“…a literature search through PubMed to review all TMS studies from 1985-2016 involving children.”

Allen, C.H. et al. (2017) Safety of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature, Pediatric Neurology, Mar; 68: 3-17.

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“…findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.”

Garces, P. et al. (2013) Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment, Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5 (100), 1-7.

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“increased neural synchronization …was observed at electric field strengths of roughly half the lowest conventional field strength, which is 80% of the resting motor threshold.”

Zmeykina, E. et al. (2020) Weak rTMS-induced electrical fields produce neural entrainment in humans, Scientific Reports, 10, 11994, 1-16.

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“If applied to a large network, large-scale networks are synchronized by such modulation of spike-timing since synaptic interactions amplify and propagate the effect of the perturbation.”

Frolich, F. (2015) Tuning out the Blues – Thalamo-Cortical Rhythms as a Successful Target for Treating Depression, Brain Stimulation, 8, 1007-1009.

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“TMS entrainment can therefore be construed as a progressive recruitment of neuronal elements cycling at the target frequency to phase align their activity to TMS.”

Thut, G. et al. (2011) Rhythmic TMS Causes Local Entrainment of Natural Oscillatory Signatures, 21, (14), 1176-1185.

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“This review presents the neurophysiologic principles and clinical applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and other related techniques of noninvasive cortical stimulation.”

Lefaucheur, J.P. (2019) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 160 (3rd series), 559-580.

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